Philip Tompkins and George Cheney

Tompkins and Cheney develop the theory of organizational identification, which can be broken down into four categories.  There are four controls which include simple, technical, bureaucratic, and concertive control.  According to Littlejohn, simple control is the use of direct power.  Technical control involves machinery that limits what an employee can do and how they perform their tasks.  Bureaucratic control uses organizational procedures and rules.  This control would include memos and reports.  Finally, concertive control moves away from the three previous controls.  Concertive control is based on an understanding that those who belong to an organization come to with the goal or mission of the organization in mind. Decision making comes from the deduction from general premises of the organization  (Littlejohn, 1996).